This book explains how the principles of lean manufacturing can be used to achieve substantial and sustainable competitive advantages in today's economic environment. Scientific models from operations research are presented to explain how and why these lean manufacturing principles should be applied. A branch of queuing theory known as factory physics is introduced, and its agreement with lean philosophy is demonstrated. The authors highlight the importance of culture and organizational structure and provide clear strategies for affecting change in any organization. A critical thinking approach to performance measurement is presented. Factory physics and lean thinking are both used to evaluate some common factory measures.